Synthetic Drugs, Detection, Uses and Residue in Effluents

Considerable advances have been made over the past century understanding the chemical hazards in food and ways for assessing and managing these risks. In the 1920’s the increasing use of insecticides led to concerns of chronic ingestion of heavy metals such as lead and arsenic from residues remaining on crops. By the 1930’s, a variety of agrochemicals were commonly used and food additives were becoming common in processed foods. During the 1940’s and 1950’s scientific advances were made in toxicology and more systematic approaches were adopted for evaluating the safety of chemical contaminants in food. 

Modern gas chromatography and liquid chromatography  both invented in the 1950’s and 1960’s, were responsible for progress in detecting, quantifying, and assessing the risk of food contaminants and adulterants. In recent decades, chem. food safety issues that have been the center of media attention include the presence of agrochemicals., veterinary drug residues, natural toxins (e.g. mycotoxins and marine toxins), heat produced toxins (e.g. acrylamide, heterocyclic aromatic. amines and furan), heavy metals (e.g. lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium), and industrial chemicals  (e.g. benzene, perchlorate and melamine) in food and feed. Due to the global nature of the food supply and advances in analytical capabilities, chemical contaminants will continue to be an area of concern for regulatory agencies, the food industry and consumers in the future.

Reliable and practicable analysis of veterinary drug residues in food-producing animals represented an important measure to ensure consumer protection. The progress of rapid screening methods and the use of accurate liquid chromatography.-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) for the quant. detection of corticosteroids used as analytical methods for corticosteroids-residue detection.

Different veterinary drug residues (macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones, and sulfonamides) in honey were detected. The separation and determination was carried out by ultra performance liquid. Chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), using an electrospay ionization source (ESI) in pos. mode. HPLC method was used for determination. of 10 sulfonamide drug residues in animal liver, including sulfaguanidine monohydrate, sulfadiazine, sulfadimidine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamethoxydiazine, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimoxinum, sulfaquinoxaline

A study tested a sewage epidemiology approach, using levels of excreted drug residues in waste water, to monitor collective use of the major drugs of abuse in near real time. Selected drug target residues derived from use of cocaine, opiates, cannabis, and amphetamines were measured by mass spectrometry in wastewater collected at major sewage treatment plants in Milan (Italy), Lugano (Switzerland), and London (United Kingdom).

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